|Neuron: Motor neuron|
Micrograph of the hypoglossal nucleus showing motor neurons with their characteristic coarseNissl substance (“tigroid” cytoplasm). H&E-LFB stain.
|Location||Ventral horn of the spinal cord, some cranial nerve nuclei|
|Function||Excitatory projection (toNMJ)|
|Neurotransmitter||UMN to LMN: glutamate; LMNto NMJ: ACh|
|Presynaptic connections||M1 via the Corticospinal tract|
|Postsynaptic connections||Muscle fibers and otherneurons|
|v · d · e|
In vertebrates, the term motor neuron (ormotoneuron) classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system (or CNS) that project theiraxons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly controlmuscles. The motor neuron is often associated withefferent neuron, primary neuron, or alpha motor neurons.
]Anatomy and physiology
|Branch of NS||Position||Neurotransmitter|
|*Except fibers to sweat glands and certain blood vessels
According to their targets, motor neurons are classified into three broad categories:
General visceral motor neurons (visceral motor neurons for short) which indirectly innervate cardiac muscle and smooth muscles of the viscera ( the muscles of the arteries): they synapse onto neurons located in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic), located in theperipheral nervous system (PNS), which themselves directly innervate visceral muscles (and also some gland cells).
In other words:
- the motor command of skeletal and branchial muscles is monosynaptic (involving only one motor neuron, respectively, somatic and branchial, which synapses onto the muscle).
- the command of visceral muscles is disynaptic (involving two neurons: the general visceral motor neuron located in the CNS, which synapses onto a ganglionic neuron, located in the PNS, which synapses onto the muscle).
It could be argued that, in the command of visceral muscles, the ganglionic neuron, parasympatheticor sympathetic, is the real motor neuron, being the one that directly innervates the muscle (whereas the general visceral motor neuron is, strictly speaking, a preganglionic neuron). But, for historical reasons, the term motor neuron is reserved for the CNS neuron.
All vertebrate motor neurons are cholinergic, that is, they release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Parasympathetic ganglionic neurons are also cholinergic, whereas most sympathetic ganglionic neurons are noradrenergic, that is, they release the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. (see Table)
The interface between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a specialized synapse called theneuromuscular junction. Upon adequate stimulation, the motor neuron releases a flood ofneurotransmitters that bind to postsynaptic receptors and triggers a response in the muscle fiber.
- In invertebrates, depending on the neurotransmitter released and the type of receptor it binds, the response in the muscle fiber could be either excitatory or inhibitory.
- For vertebrates, however, the response of a muscle fiber to a neurotransmitter can only be excitatory, in other words, contractile. Muscle relaxation and inhibition of muscle contraction in vertebrates is obtained only by inhibition of the motor neuron itself. Although muscle innervation may eventually play a role in the maturation of motor activity. This is why muscle relaxants work by acting on the motoneurons that innervate muscles (by decreasing their electrophysiologicalactivity) or on cholinergic neuromuscular junctions, rather than on the muscles themselves.
]Somatic motor neurons
Somatic motoneurons are further subdivided into two types: alpha efferent neurons and gamma efferent neurons. (Both types are called efferent to indicate the flow of information from the central nervous system (CNS) to the periphery.)
- Alpha motoneurons innervate extrafusal muscle fibers (typically referred to simply as muscle fibers) located throughout the muscle. Their cell bodies are in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and they are sometimes called ventral horn cells.
- Gamma motoneurons innervate intrafusal muscle fibers found within the muscle spindle.
In addition to voluntary skeletal muscle contraction, alpha motoneurons also contribute to muscle tone, the continuous force generated by noncontracting muscle to oppose stretching. When a muscle is stretched, sensory neurons within the muscle spindle detect the degree of stretch and send a signal to the CNS. The CNS activates alpha motoneurons in the spinal cord, which cause extrafusal muscle fibers to contract and thereby resist further stretching. This process is also called the stretch reflex.
Gamma motoneurons regulate the sensitivity of the spindle to muscle stretching. With activation of gamma neurons, intrafusal muscle fibers contract so that only a small stretch is required to activate spindle sensory neurons and the stretch reflex.
A single motor neuron may synapse with one or more muscle fibers. The motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers to which it connects is a motor unit.